Archive for February, 2010

New 14-Day Rule in Miranda-Edwards Cases

Wednesday, February 24th, 2010

 

The Supreme Court heard a very important argument this week in the case of Maryland v. Shatzer. It was one of those situations where the oral argument makes a huge difference in the outcome of the case. We read the briefs earlier this month, and remarked to colleagues that both sides’ arguments seemed eminently reasonable. So reasonable that we couldn’t form a strong opinion either way.

But the oral arguments convinced us thoroughly: Both sides are stupid.

So we wrote back on October 8, when this case was argued. This morning, the Supreme Court issued its decision.

While Shatzer was in prison on another conviction, allegations arose that he’d molested his son. A detective went to the prison to interrogate him. Shatzer invoked his Miranda right to counsel, and the detective ended the interrogation and left. Shatzer went back into general population, and the investigation was closed. Three years later, another detective began investigating again, went to the prison to interrogate Shatzer, and this time Shatzer waived his Miranda rights and incriminated himself. The Maryland Court of Appeals said his statements should have been suppressed, because there was no break in custody between his invocation of his right to counsel and his subsequent interrogation, because he’d stayed in prison the whole time.

At oral argument, Maryland proposed an idiotic rule that any break in custody, no matter how short, would end the Edwards presumption that the invoked rights were still invoked. That would just allow catch-and-release until the suspect broke down and waived his rights.

Shatzer’s position was even more idiotic — that invoking the right to counsel in one case now, counts as an invocation of the right to counsel in all future cases he may ever have, even in other jurisdictions decades later.

We suggested a simple rule:

1) If a suspect was in custody, was read his Miranda rights, and invoked his Fifth Amendment right to have a lawyer present during questioning…

2) And if there was a break in custody, so that an objectively reasonable person would have felt free to leave his questioners…

3) Then there is a rebuttable presumption that his invoked right to counsel continues to be invoked with respect to any subsequent questioning about the same underlying allegations.

4) The state can rebut this presumption with facts that demonstrate, by clear and convincing evidence, that the suspect no longer desired the presence of counsel during questioning. (This will necessarily be extremely rare, though not at all inconceivable.)

The rule could be streamlined even further, by deleting the phrase “there is a rebuttable presumption that” from #3, and deleting #4 altogether.
This rule provides all the protections that defendants, law enforcement and the courts require. At the same time, it avoids the absurdities of the existing bright-line rule, and of the more extreme bright-line rules proposed by the parties in this case

In today’s decision, the Supreme Court agreed with us that the positions taken by both sides are absurd. But they didn’t impose a new rule. Instead, they merely focused on what counts as “uninterrupted Miranda custody” for the purposes of Edwards.

First, the Court imposed a bright-line rule, in the hopes of preventing catch-and-release tactics. They said that, once a person has been released from police custody, a period of 14 days must elapse before he can be said to have waived his Miranda rights voluntarily. So if a suspect invokes his rights, ending the interrogation, and he is released from custody, he cannot be interrogated again for 14 days. Once that fortnight has passed, the Court felt that enough time had passed for the suspect to shake off the coercive effects of custody and get back to normal life.

That’s a bright-line rule, and so that’s going to create injustices on either side of the line for suspects who are more or less able to shake off the coercive effects of custody. Which can be truly traumatizing.

The Court has always liked bright-line rules for police conduct, of course, because it leaves less room for police judgment or discretion, which makes it easier for the police to know what they’re allowed to do. The thinking goes that the less gray area there is, the less likely police will be to cross the line, and the more likely individuals will not have their rights violated. That may be true so far as it goes, but only at the cost of new injustice for those whose individual circumstances would move the line. What’s reasonable for me may not be reasonable for you.

Scalia tries to avoid this interpretation by reassuring us that (more…)

Beatings & Batson

Monday, February 22nd, 2010

guard beating prisoner

The Supreme Court is back in session, well rested from a three-week vacation. (We don’t remember the last time we took three weeks off. Wonder what that must be like.) They opened the day this morning with two interesting per curiam decisions.

The first, Wilkins v. Gaddy, is about what counts as “excessive force” against a prisoner. There was some confusion among the circuits here.

This was a case coming out of North Carolina. A prisoner named Wilkins asked a prison guard for a grievance form. The guard, Gaddy, lost his temper. Wilkins claims that Gaddy threw him to the ground and beat him up, until another officer came and pulled him off. At the end of the day, though, his only injury was a bruised heel and some lingering pain.

The Fourth Circuit said that didn’t count as “excessive force,” because there wasn’t much injury. The main case on point was Hudson v. McMillian, 503 U.S. 1 (1992), which the Fourth Circuit had been interpreting to mean that the prisoner’s injuries had to be more than de minimis. And a bruise on your heel is about as de minimis as it gets.

The Supreme Court reversed, saying that’s not at all what Hudson was saying. Calling the Fourth’s reading of that case “strained,” the Supremes clarified the rule in no uncertain terms: the focus is not on what happened to the prisoner, but on what the corrections officer did.

The issue is not how significant the injuries were, but whether the correction officer’s force was “nontrivial,” and “was applied maliciously and sadistically to cause harm,” rather than as part of “a good-faith effort to maintain or restore discipline.”

So, just because a prisoner got hurt, that doesn’t mean he was subjected to cruel and unusual punishment. People can get hurt for other reasons; that makes sense. What matters is whether he was assaulted, subjected to unjustifiable ill treatment. The extent of injury doesn’t have anything to do with whether his rights were violated in the first place — they merely go to “the damages he may recover.”

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The second case decided today, Thaler v. Haynes, is a Batson case out of Texas.

This was a death penalty case, so the stakes were high. There’d be some pressure on everyone involved to do it right. But the criminal law being what it is, things went weird from the get-go.

When the attorneys questioned potential jurors during (more…)

What the…?

Thursday, February 18th, 2010

in the trenches

Holy crap, our last post was more than three weeks ago? We knew we were busy out here in the trenches, but didn’t realize we were that busy!

We don’t mind going a week without posting something. This isn’t the kind of blog where each post is a brief observation with a link, which lends itself to multiple posts per day. We love to read that kind of blog, but we don’t write one. And we sure aren’t doing this in some misguided attempt to attract clients or maximize SEO or generate revenue — we really just write this because we want to — so there’s zero pressure to keep generating content regardless of quality.

But still… three weeks is too long. We’ve got plenty to write about, so we’d better get to it! BRB